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科學家揭示基因數目減少在植物適應性進化中的重要作用

文章來源:植物研究所   發布時間:2019-03-22  【字號:     】  

  一般認為,基因數目的增加,例如基因重復或者形成全新基因,對于生物生存繁衍具有重要意義。然而,基因數目減少同樣也能產生重要的遺傳變異,進而對生物的生存及繁衍產生積極的效果。這一事實在以往并未得到充分關注。而以“減少就是增加”(less is more)為代表的假說,則提出了基因的假基因化或丟失等基因數目減少事件與增加事件一樣重要。但是,這一假說的科學證據有待發掘,特別是假基因化在生物進化中的實際作用及其意義仍不清楚。

  中國科學院植物研究所郭亞龍研究組與中國科學院動物研究所研究員張勇、美國Salk研究所教授Wolfgang Busch合作,利用擬南芥的群體基因組數據,運用群體遺傳學及數量遺傳學的方法,對“減少就是增加”假說進行了驗證。研究人員發現,假基因化對表型變異非常關鍵,1%的假基因化變異在群體里受到正選擇,表明假基因化與基因重復一樣,與適應性進化密切相關。在1000多個全球分布的擬南芥自然品系的基因組中,有34%的基因沒有發生假基因化突變,說明這些基因對于擬南芥在自然條件下生存繁衍是不可缺少的,也說明在自然界里基因組里的必需基因(essential gene)的數目遠遠大于實驗室里估計的必需基因數目。

  該研究在全基因組水平上系統性地研究了植物假基因化的進化規律及機制,表明基因功能缺失變異對植物進化非常重要。該研究證實了“減少就是增加”假說,證明基因數目的減少與增加一樣都能對生物進化產生巨大的影響。研究成果表明,基因數目的增加與減少只是相對的,進化的核心是變異。

  該成果318日發表在國際學術期刊Plant Cell上。郭亞龍研究組博士研究生徐永超為第一作者,郭亞龍為通訊作者。該研究得到國家自然科學基金委、中科院戰略性先導科技專項、中科院種子創新研究院和Salk研究所啟動資金支持。

  文章鏈接

 

假基因化(less)與基因重復(more)一樣與適應性進化密切相關 




(責任編輯:葉瑞優)

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